New Testament Update, March2009
My excitement builds as the Ancient Roots Translinear Bible (ARTB) New
In my last note, I had hoped that it would be ready for release this
For example, the Greek word “Gospel” is in use in the Aramaic NT, but
Bear with me--I want you to easily be able to know which words are the
A. Frances Werner
Insights on Crucifixion
I’m continuing to press ahead on finishing the Ancient Roots Translinear Bible (ARTB) New Testament. Just thought I’d share an interesting insight with you about CRUCIFIXION. I had always thought that the cruel form of capital punishment of crucifixion was an invention of the Romans at the time of Christ. But the Aramaic New Testament helps uncover that the concept probably occured at the time of Ezra, during the return from Bablyon, approximately 400BC.
There is a Hebrew word “zaqap” (Strong’s number 2210) which is “erect” in the Ancient Roots Translinear Bible (ARTB). It occurs twice in the Old Testament:
(If you haven’t tried the WordSearch feature on www.AncientRoots.com, give it a whirl! Simply enter the number 2210 in the Strong’s number box, and these verses will pop up.)
The single Aramaic use in the Old Testament is spelled the same “zaqap” (Strong’s number 2211), and also is listed as “erect” in the ARTB in Ezra 6:11.
When you get to the New Testament, the usage of the root 2211 explodes. It changes a tiny bit in spelling, but is clearly is the word “CRUCIFY” as the crowd calls for Jesus’ death. It also has a related root which is the word “CROSS”.
As usual, the Hebrew/Aramaic vocabulary is wonderful in its richness. They clearly differentiated between HANGING on a tree (ie an actual TREE with a NOOSE), and dying by being hung on a manmade structure by manmade means which is CRUCIFIXION in the New Testament (NAILED to a CROSS). The Ezra 6:11 verse catches the transition: Tear down the house, ERECT a manmade structure, and INJURE him over it. Sure sounds like crucifixion to me.
You may want to make a note in your ARTB text.
I also received a note about this information from a reader:
Your research is confirmed by historical references. It was used even before Ezra.
Acccording to Josephus and other authorities, Haman was crucified on a cross by Ahasuerus, King of Persia.Crucifixion was used extensively by the Persians:
"It was in use particularly among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD, when in the year 337 Emperor Constantine I abolished it in his empire, out of veneration for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of crucifixion. "
A. Frances Werner
Yeshua or Jesus
I received a question from a reader:
First I want to thank you for the swift processing and sending of the Ancient Roots Translinear Bible (ARTB). What a breath of fresh air. Secondly, I was wondering what Hebrew name for Jesus will be used in the New Testament when it comes out?I've been doing research. It's amazing how many different spellings and renderings of Jesus name there are in the Hebrew. I read one article where the person said Yahushua is the real name of Jesus. Others say Yahshua or Yahoshua, Yeshua. I didn't know if you were a sacred name person or what. As you can see, I ask a lot of questions but I do so to learn. I love to learn.
The final decision for the name of Jesus has not been made. We will likely do a survey of the readers in the near future.
At this point, the spelling of the Hebrew alternative would be Yeshua. There are two main groups who are studying the ARTB. Those who are coming from a Hebrew/Aramaic perspective who would like to see all names and places in Hebrew/Aramaic, and those who are only familiar with a Greek New Testament who would be lost if Bartholomew was listed as "Bar-Tolmai, a disciple of Yeshua".
Glad you are enjoying ARTB!
Genesis 1:1 "In the Beginning"
I had a question from a reader about Genesis 1:1. The Ancient Roots Translinear Bible (ARTB) uses the phrase, "First, God created . . .". Most other versions use the phrase "In the beginning". Other translators use other words. Why did ARTB pick the word "first"?
From the reader: My attention has recently brought to the works of Gerald Shroeder, in one of his books he asserts the following: The opening word, usually translated as "In the beginning," is the Hebrew Be'reasheet. Be'reasheet can mean "In the beginning of" but not "In the beginning." The difficulty with the preposition "of" is that its object is absent from the sentence and so the usual English translation merely drops it. Rather than changing the meaning of the Hebrew and ignoring the "of," the 2,100 year old Jerusalem translation of Genesis into Aramaic realizes that Be'reacheet is a compound word: the prefix Be' – with; and raesheet – a first wisdom. The meaning becomes: "With wisdom God created the heavens and the earth." Having obtained your ARTB bible, with which I am particularly pleased with, I wondered if you could give me your opinion on Shroeder's assertion about the meaning of the Hebrew for "In the beginning".– with; and raesheet – a first wisdom. The meaning becomes: "With wisdom God created the heavens and the earth." Having obtained your ARTB bible, with which I am particularly pleased with, I wondered if you could give me your opinion on Shroeder's assertion about the meaning of the Hebrew for "In the beginning".
I have always been troubled by the first word(s) of Genesis. They are very tough--and there's a lot of discussion about it. The word "first" or "beginning" definitely matches the Aramaic form (Strongs' number 7225). And I absolutely agree with your points about the prepositions.
I am very close to Shroeder's position, but slightly different. Shroeder chose to emphasize the word "widsom" from the notion of "first wisdom", but I have emphasized the word "first". Here's why. In a translinear methodology, I chose the best English word that matched ALL of the occurances of Strong's number 7225. Take a look at the entries that come up when you type in "7225" in the Number box of the "ARTB Bible Search" page on menu to the left.
Genesis 1:1 can work either with "first" or "wisdom". But the next entry, Genesis 10:10 says "His FIRST realm had Babylon . . .". The word "Wisdom" wouldn't work there or in most of the remaining uses. Thus, the ARTB uses the word "first".
A. Frances Werner